Diazepam first marketed as Valium and other drugs such as Alprazolam (Xanax) fall under the category of a benzodiazepine drug. They are commonly used to treat a wide range of conditions, including anxiety, panic attacks, insomnia, seizures, muscle spasms, restless legs syndrome, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, opiate withdrawal syndrome, and Ménière’s disease. They possess anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, and amnestic properties. The pharmacological action of benzodiazepine enhances the effect of the neurotransmitter GABA by binding to the benzodiazepine site on the GABA receptor (via the constituent chlorine atom) leading to central nervous system depression. Adverse effects of diazepam include anterograde amnesia (especially at higher doses) and sedation, as well as paradoxical effects such as excitement, rage, or worsening of seizures in epileptics. Benzodiazepines also can cause or worsen depression, particularly after extended periods of use. Long-term effects of benzodiazepines include tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal syndrome upon dose reduction. After cessation of benzodiazepines, cognitive deficits may persist for at least six months and longer than six months may be needed for recovery from some deficits. Benzodiazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and a range of other conditions. They are one of the most widely prescribed medications in the U.S., particularly among elderly patients. Benzodiazepines possess sedative, hypnotic, anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. Benzodiazepines work by enhancing the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) which is responsible for reducing the activity of neurons that cause stress and anxiety.